ISTS 1-2

Each group will be assigned one quotation. You will need to address two questions: (A) what does the quotation mean? and, (B) why is the quotation important in the context of the chapter?

1. A scientific theory, then, is a condensed summary of possible observations. (Ch 1, section 1; 256)

2. Any theory that fails to make risky predictions is ruled unscientific, and any theory that makes failed predictions is ruled false. A theory that makes good predictions is provisionally accepted—until new evidence comes along. (Ch 1, section 1; loc 308)

3. For the realist, science does not merely construct convenient theoretical descriptions of data, or merely discard falsified theories: When it constructs theories or other claims, those generally and eventually approach the truth. (Ch 1, section 1; loc 360)

4. The field investigates how scientific knowledge and technological artifacts are constructed. Knowledge and artifacts are human products, and marked by the circumstances of their production. (Ch 1, section 3; loc 471)

5. The theoretical side of the paradigm serves as a worldview, providing categories and frameworks into which to slot phenomena. The practical side of a paradigm serves as a form of life, providing patterns of behavior or frameworks for action. (Ch 2, section 1; loc 524)

6. Instead, observation comes interpreted: we do not see dots and lines in our visual fields, but instead see more or less recognizable objects and patterns. Thus observation is guided by concepts and ideas. (Ch 2, section 1; loc 581)

7. Disciplines are “epistemic cultures” that may have completely different orientations to their objects, social units of knowledge production, and patterns of interaction. (Ch 2, section 2; loc 638)